With the DHCP server installed we need to configure the Services. Before we can do this there are a few things we need to know beforehand. Note this is for a basic Setup only the bare necessities. The advanced option will be done at a later Post.
An IP Address is a numeric number that identifies the device. There are different versions of this with the most common ones being IPv4 and IPv6.
For these purposes, we are going to concentrate on IPv4 which can be broken into additional classes from Class A, Class B & Class C.
Not getting into all the Classes, Class C basically gives us an IP Range we can use including a Subnet.
IP Range: 192.168.0.x
A Subnet splits your IP Range into two portions. The first being the Network Portion and the second being the Host Portion. For this, we are interested in the number of hosts which will allow us 254 Devices. More than enough for a small network and if need be we can make it less.
The Default Gateway is normally the device the ISP provides when installing the internet, Commonly known as the router. The Router has two IP addresses assigned to it. Internally, this corresponds to your IP range and counts towards one of your devices that will require an IP. Externally, which is internet facing this will forward all your traffic to the internet and back as required.
For this, we are going to make the Gateway: 192.168.0.1
The DNS (Domain Name System) is used to convert URLs like www.google.co.za to an IP address which can be understood by the computer. In a lot of cases, this will be the IP of the DHCP server as the DHCP will normally run the service on the same router. Within the home environment, the router normally does the function of all the above.
With more corporate environment a self-maintained DNS makes it possible to get the users to the correct services whilst controlling which internet services can be used if no firewall or Proxy is present.
We will be using the DHCP Server IP: 192.168.0.10
The Exclusion range is the parts of the IP Range that must not be assigned to any device as they are potentially already in use or planned for use.
As an example, I have planned out that all network equipment (Routers, Switches, and Wireless) units will take up IPs from 192.168.0.1 – 192.168.0.9.
All servers will take up IPs from 192.168.10 – 192.168.0.019.
Thus we don’t want any other device to take those ranges so we will exclude them from being dynamically assigned.
Great we have all the pieces required to do the setup. On the Server go to Server Manager click tools and open DHCP. Click the Drop-down next to the server Name and Right Click IPv4 to chose New Scope
On the New Scope Wizard click Next and in the Name and Description enter Meaningful Data. Example: Pincer Workstation IP Range this is important as it is possible to have multiple IP Ranges being assigned from the server and you need to know you are working with the right Scope.
Click next and at the IP Address Range enter the Scope Range.
Start IP: 192.168.0.1 and End IP: 192.168.0.254. The Lenght will auto-fill itself in and correspond to the Subnet we chose.
The next screen, we then want to Exclude all IPs that must not be used.
Start IP: 192.168.0.1 End IP: 192.168.0.20 then Click Add.
The next screen will be the lease duration which we will leave at default.
Move onto Configure DHCP Options and Choose Yes, Configure these options now
The first screen will be the Default Gateway which you can enter: 192.168.0.1 as per what our router will.
Next will the DNS Server, if the service is installed on the server it should autofill in the information alternatively you can enter the correct information.
The WINS Servers can be left blank.
Lastly, you have the option to Activate the Scope or Not. It is important to know where you are when activating the scope as clients will be serviced from here and this can be a potential rogue server if it starts giving IP’s in a location which it should not serve. The Scope can be activated at a later stage if needs be. As this is a Dev Enviroment we will be activating the scope.
This is it your first scope is created it will start giving out the IP address as per your config. You can play around and see where each section of the config has filled itself in. When having a look around you will see there are still many features not covered for DHCP Configs.